Unit II: Module 1- Self Assessment Questions

Fill in the blanks

1. A word is made up of ________ ; whereas, a concept is made up of ______.

2. A sentence is made up of ________; whereas, a statement is made up of _______.

3. An argument is made up of __________ and not made up of _________.

4. A convenient devise invented by philosophers to mark important distinctions is called a ___________-.

5. ________ and __________ are two examples of constructs.

6. ___________ are not the bearers of truth and falsehood.

7. The bearers of truth and falsehood are __________.

8. You can use a declarative sentences to assert a ___________.

9. A _________ can be expressed by different words or terms in the same language or in different languages.

10. A ___________- can be expressed by different sentences in the same language or in different languages.

11. The principle of identity states that if a statement is true, then it is ______.

12. The principle of non contradiction states that no statement can be both _______ or ______ at the same time.

13. The principle of excluded middle states that a statement can only have two____________.

14. ___________ is the principle often confused with inconsistency.

15. A statement that is inconsistent can be both be ________ but they cannot both be __________ .

16. The calculus of mathematical probability does not follow the principle of ______________.


it is true letters/ideas false/true words concepts

constructs sentences true/false concepts/statement

statements truth values statement statements/sentences

concepts non-contradiction statement excluded middle



Unit II: Module 2 - Self Assessment Questions

A. Fill in the blanks

1. A categorical statement asserts a relationship between two _________.

2. There are four types of categorical statements whose names are taken from first tow vowels of the Latin word _________ and ________.

3. All A are B is an _________.

4. All A are not B is an __________.

5. Some A are B is an ____________.

6. Some A are not B is an ___________.

7. The A-form statement asserts that all the members of A are ______ in B.

8. The E-form statement asserts that the members of a are __________ in B.

9. The O-form states that some members of A are ______________ in B.

10. The I-form states that some members of A are _______________ in B.

11. When you know that all the members of A are totally excluded from B, then you know that both terms A and B are ___________.

12. When you know that all the members of A are totally included in B, then A is __________ bu B is ___________.

13. So, for a term to be distributed, you must be able to account for all the members, either the members are __________ or _________from another term.

14. When only some members are included in the membership, it is _________.

15. The O-form asserts that some members of A are not members of B, so A is ______ but B is _______ because when some members are excluded, it is assumed that all are excluded, too.


O-form concepts undistributed/distributed

distributed A-form distributed/undistributed

undistributed AffIrm/nEgO partially included

partially excluded E-form totally excluded

totally included I-form totally included/excluded






B. Fill in the blanks

1. If the A-form: All A are B is true, then it follows that ____________is true also, but the____________ and ____________are false.

2. In contrast, if the E-form: All A are not B, then it follows that the__________is true, but the ____________ and the ______________ is false.

3. If the I-form : Some A are B is true, then it follows that the ______________ is false.

4. If the O-form;: Some A is not B is true, then the _____________ is false.

5. The relationship between the A-form and the O-form is________________.

6. The relationship between the E-form and the I-form is __________________.

7. The I-form and the O-form can be both the ________________ but they cannot be both ______________.

8. The A-form and the E-form are________________ and not _______________.

9. If an I-form is true, it has________ consequences on A-form or O-form.

10. If an O-form is true, it has________ consequences on an I-form and E-form.


A-form E-form contradictory

Contradictory false/true no

I-form/E-form contraries/ O-form/A-form/I-form

O-form contradictory no



 Unit V: Module 5 - Self Assessment Questions

Fill in the blanks

1. The humanist tenet: Man is the measue of all things was attributed to ___________.

2. Man undergoes a qualitative transformation from ___________ being at birth, to the acquisition of __________ until he matures into a _______ being.

3. The development of human potentials is the experience of __________.

4. The humanist definition of intrinsic good is the actual development of __________.

5. All actions that hasten the development of human potentials are _________. Actions that do the reverse are.

6. Consequently, man's _________ is to develop his potentials to the fullest.

7. You must treat development of your fellowmen as your own is your ____________.

8. The deontological aspect of the humanist ethics is ______________ and __________.

9. Oppurtunities in life contain the blueprint for human _____________ in any society.

10. Oppurtunities in life include oppurtunities for the satisfaction of __________ and oppurtunitis for the development of _____________.

11. Societal structures determine the ________ of oppurtunities in life of the members.

12. Unequal distribution of oppurtunities in life can be traced to _________ social structure.

13. The ___________ obligation of society is the provision of oppurtunities in life equally to all the members.

14. Oppurtunities in life can be used as an _______ of societal development.

15. The direction of social development is the ______ distribution of more and varied opprtunities to all the members.

16. A policy is just if and only if, of all possible options, it is the one more likely to ___________ distribute opportunities and benefits to those members whose needs are greater.

17. When government is no longer faithful to the principle of justice, we have a _________ to replace it.



unconditional Protagoras equitable duty to ypurself/

distribution right/wrong differentially duty to fellowmen

index moral goodness egocentric/ reciprocity/ basic needs/

unjust primary duty sociocentric human potentials

right human potential duty to your fellowmen development




Unit II: Module 3- Self Assessment Questions

A. Fill in the blanks

1. A statement is ambiguous when there is an _________concept

in the statement.

2. A statement is vague when there is a vague concept in the


3. An ambiguous statement can be taken to be _______or ________

depending on the language game.

4. The _______values of a vague statement are much more difficult

to establish.

5. A _________statement is much more difficult to resolve.

6. When a statement is ____________, you do not know what it

includes or excludes.

7. If I say : Good is the preferred grading word, I am _______the


8. If I say: Snow is white is true, I am _________the word.

9. Vagueness is a matter of ___________boundary.

10. If I say: Stand roughly here!, I am ________the word.


vague ambiguous using vague

true/false indeterminancy truth using

mentioning vague





B. Identify whether the statement is ambiguous, the resolve the ambiguity

In the space provided.

l. Love is a beautiful word. ____________________________________

2. Love is wonderful.__________________________________________

3. The world is full of love._____________________________________

4. Define love._______________________________________________

5. Desribe "love."_____________________________________________

6. Desribe love._______________________________________________

7. Love contains four letters.____________________________________

8. Describe the word love.______________________________________



C. Identify and replace the vague concepts with more specific ones.

1. Mayor Lim is preferred by many Catholics.

2. VP Estrada is going to win by a landslide.

3. Some Ilocanos will still vote for Imelda Marcos.

4. Sen. Roco is preferred by almost all women voters.

5. Most of the young voters will vote for Sen. Santiago.



Module II: Module 4- Self Assessment Questions

Fill in the blanks.

1. The rationalist accepts that there is only one source of knowledge

and that is _________________.

2. In contrast, the empericist accepts two sources of knowledge, namely:

___________and ______________.

3. Rationalism in modern philosophy is represented by ______________,

______________and _________________.

4. The rationalist philosophers do not accept _____________ as a genuine

source of knowledge.

5. Empericism is represented by ______________,_____________and


6. The empericist philosophers believe that if you want knowldege of the

world, then you have to use the faculty of _______________.

7. The faculty of reason of the rationalist is like a _________________

faculty. It can acquire knowledge beyond the physical world to the

realm of _____________ where utlimate reality resides.

8. The empericists would not reject reason as a genuine source of

knowledge, but they will restrict its aplication to _______________ and


9. Leibniz accepted two kinds of truth,namely: _________and _________.

10. In the language of Hume, these truths are called _______and ________.

11. Kant believes that reason and experience should __________each other.

12. The crux of Kant's synthesis of rationalism and empericism is in its


13. Descartes accepted three metaphysical concepts,which are _______,

____________and _______________.

14. Spinoza accepted only one,________________.


compliment experience reason experience

transcendental/ reason/experience God Locke/Berkeley/


substance truth of reason/ truth of facts

God/mind/ relations of ideas/

Descartes/Leibniz/ synthetic a priori matter matter of fact Spinoza logic/mathemeati

Unit II: Miodule 5- Self Assessement Questions

Fill in the blanks.

1. The logical positivists developed a theory of knoweldge

by adopting the framework of ______________.

2. If there are two sources of knoweldege and two types of

statements, then there can only be two types of knowlledge,

_____________and __________________.

3. If there are two types of statements, then we have two theories of truth,

these are _________________and _________________.

4. For logical positivists, if the statement is true, then it is ______________.

5. If the statement is false, then it is ___________________.

6. If the statenment is neither true nor false, then it is ________________.

7. For the logical positivists, the meaning of an emperical statement is the


8. Analytic statements are verified by the use of ____________________.

9. Emperical statements are verified by the use of ___________________.

10. The denial of an analytic statement leads to ___________________.

11. An ______________statement is your assessment of the worth or value

of an act or behaviour.

12. If you are not sure about the status of a statement, a simple test is to

______________the statement.


deny coherence formal/emperical

Hume meaningdful method of verification

Evaluative meaningful contradiction/absurdity

Correspondence meaningless coherence/correspondence





Unit II: Module 6=- Self Assessment Questions

1. The logical positivists cannot accept as meaningful statements that

could not be classified as either_____________or _____________>

2. Many philosophers disagreed with the logical positivists that

______________statemenst are meaningless.

3. In metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics, the statements used are


4. These areas from philsophy must therefore be ____________________.

5. Philosophers who disagreed with the logical positivists must look for a

____________in order to make a 3rd category meaningful.

6. According to Ayer, the meaning of X is good is _________________.

7. The terms good, moral and desirable are only used to express________.

8. These ethical terms do not add __________content to the statement.

9. Ethical statements are purely ___________and therefore____________

like a cry of pain.

10. Nowell-Smith believes that ethical terms have a rich variety of _____.

11. Nowell-Smith contends that ethical terms can be used to ___________,

_____________and _______________.

12. If evaluative terms can be used to express approval or disapproval, it

does not mean that it is ________________.

13. In limiting meanigful discourse to analytic and emperical statements,

the logical positivists prevented us from making judgement about

the _________or_____________of an act,event or person.

14. If we are prevented in this way, according to Greene, we will be

reduced to the level of ____________.

15. Evaluative statements derive their meaning from the various language

games in which they the are accepted as ___________ of behaviour.

16. An evaluative statement is the result of the _________and _________

of the people playing a language game.

17. The existence of this consensus provides strong __________ _________

for ethical judgement.

18. In the context of a group of people playing a language game, ethical

disagreements can easily be _____________._________________________________


criterion uses animality analytical/emperical

evaluative approval worth/value resolved

emotive factual public support evaluative

banished norms grade/encourage whimsical

emotive/ intra/inter advice/warn/

unverifiable subjective praise




Unit II: Module 7- Self Assessment Questions

Fill in the blanks.

1. Using the pragmatic criterion of truth, a belief is true if its acceptance

leads to ________________.

2. A belief is false if it leads to ________________.

3. _________and _________ are the key concepts in the application of the

pragnmatic consequences.

4. If a belief has no consequence at all, the it is neither ______nor ______.

5. In considering whether there was an invisibkle gardener or not, James

would ask: What is the ____________of the belief in experiential


6. The pragmatic theory of truth cannot pass the _________and _________


7. The usual criticism of the pragmatic theory is _________________.

8. The concept of good consequences varies from ____________to

____________ and from __________to ______________.

9. Because of ____________ and __________relativism, the pragmatic

criterion was discarded as a _________criterion of truth.

10. The most damaging criticism of the pragmatic theory is when it

conflicts with the application of the __________theory of truth.


cash value good consequence viscious relativism

correspondence bad consequence individual/individual

good/practical true/false culture/culture

intra/inter visciuos/cultural/

subjectivity public





Unit II: Module 8- SeLF Assessment Questions


A. Fill in the blanks.

1. Coherence theory,being a relational term, must relate two philsophical categories, these are _____________and ____________.

2. Correspondence theory, being a relational term, must relate tow philosophical categories as well, there are _________and ____________.

3. If the first category is :Either I graduate or not, the second category is _____________and the nature of coherence is ______________.

4. If the first category is : Old maids are unmarried females, and the second category is is _____________, then the nature of coherence is ___________.

5. If the fisrt category is : The grass is green, the second category is _____________ then the nature of realtion is____________________.

6. In Locke's theory of truth, the first category is ___________and the second is_______________and the nature of relation is ________________.

7. In Wittgenstein's theory , the first category is an _____________and

the nature of relation is an ________________of logical structure.

8. A limitation of the correspondence theory is that it cannot handle an

____________with open domain and an _________statement.

9. It cannot also verify statements about the ________________.

10. If an A-form canot completely be verified , the suggestion of Popper is to _____________it.

11. You can falsify an A-form statement by producing a single _________.

12. The most important learning outcome of this book is: never accept the truth of any statement or belief unless you have _____________for it.


past analytic statement/ logical system/

counter example systems logical coherence

A-form/O-form adequate evidence theory of reality/

Falsify knowledge claim/ correspondence

Ideas/reality/ linguistic system fact/isomorphism




B. Identify the epistemological status of the statement and then estimate whether the statement is verifiable, unverifiable or simply falsifiable. If the statement is verfiable, state the theory of truth you are going to use.

l. All bachelors are lonely.________________________________

2. Brothers are kind._____________________________________

3. Fathers are male parents.________________________________

4. Oranges are segmented.______________________________

5. Developing my intellect is good._________________________

6. There is life after death._______________________________

7. Hjane was caught stealing.____________________________

8. Incest is abhorrent.____________________________________

9. Either I study or I don't._________________________________

10. Human beings pursue pleasure and avoid pain._______________


Unit II: Module 9- Sel;f Assessment Questions

Fill in the blanks.

1. We represent a simple or a compound statement in order to isolate the content from the ____________of the statement.

2. We use a _______________to represent a simple statement.

3. The symbols we have adopted to represent the four connecting words are the following:

3.1 _______represents the connecting word and

3.2 ______ represents the connecting word either/or

3.3 _______represents the connecting word if?then

3.4_______ represnts the connecting word if and only if

4. The technical nams for the four connecting words are |

4.1 __________________

4.2 __________________

4.3 __________________

4.4 __________________

5. A statement that contains a connecting word is called a _________ statement.

6. Supose P and Q are representations of two simple statements. Create four different compound statements.

6.1 ________________

6.2 ________________

6.3 ________________

6.4 ________________

7. The representation of a compound statement serves to isolate the (a.)_________ from the (b.)___________.

8. If P represents a simple statement, then the negation of P can be represented as ____________.

9. If PvQ represents a compound statement, then the negation of the compound can be represented by ______________-.

10. If I wish to negate the compound (PvQ) as well as its elements, I can represent it as _______________.






P.Q PvQ logical form conjunction

Pà Q P=Q compound conditional

. v ~(~Pv~Q) alternation

= à capital letter biconditional

~P ~(PvQ) logical form content




Unit II: Module10- Self Assessement Questions

Fill in the blanks.

1. The principle of identity can be represented by ____________.

2. The principle of excluded middle can be represented by ___________.

3. The principle of non-contradiction can be represented by ____________.

4. When a statement cannot be false in all substitution instances of its truth values, the statement is called _____________.

5. When a statement cannot be true in all substitution instances of its truth values, it is called ___________.

6. The double negation of a statement P implies its ____________.

7. The triple negation of a statement P implies its ___________.

8. The representation ~(P.~P) is always _______________.

9. A conjunction is true when both conjunctions are _________.

10. An alternation is false when both alternants are ____________.

11. When the antecedent is true and the consequent is false the conditional is ____________.

12. A biconditional is false when both elements are either ______ or _____.


affirmative tautology negative true

true false false self-contradictory

Pà P ~(P.~P) Pv~P true or false